Understanding how stock market price rises and falls is similar to understanding the prices of other products in the market. It also follows the law of supply and demand. The price of stocks rises and fall due to the following reasons:
1. Company profit projections and image
A company’s growth and profit forecasts describe how capable a company is in delivering its promises to its investors. These numerical projections are carefully prepared by a company based on their past profits and projected additional profits due to new products and services, operations, and infrastructure improvement.
Aside from profit forecasts, company image can also make an impact on a company’s profitability. Rumors of change in management, take-over, mergers, and even personal issues about the company’s top executives can affect the company’s image.
For example, a rumor of a merger between two big companies projects more stability and greater profit projections for both companies. As more investors would want to buy stocks from these merging companies, the demand for their stocks will rise. Based on the law of supply and demand: the greater the demand for stocks, the higher will their prices be.
A bankruptcy rumor about a company can send its investors to sell all their stocks. If there are more sellers than buyers of stocks than the supply (of stocks) is greater than the demand for stocks thus, the stock price will fall.
2. Political Economy
General news about local and global politics has an immediate impact on the economy and consequently on stock market prices. Politics and economics are correlated. Positive news such as lower unemployment rates increased productivity, peace, and order, and strong confidence in the government has a positive impact on the economy. Such news encourages more local and international investors to open companies in a certain location or country. This in turn would generate more jobs, and as an effect, would encourage more trading in the market at higher stock prices in general due to the increase in demand for stocks of different companies.
On the other hand, negative news such as political instability and turmoil, security problems such as terrorism and insurgency, frequent strikes, and inflation has a negative impact on the stock market prices. Investors are driven away by these things and close-ups. As an effect, more stockholders would sell out. This creates more sellers than buyers thus stock market prices fall.
3. Interest rates
Higher interest rates are associated with a slump in economic growth. This creates a sluggish environment where investors become apprehensive in buying stocks. Either they keep the status quo or sell out their stocks. When the demand for stocks is not high, prices will go down.